glossary

While watching kdramas, you’ll probably notice a lot of terms cropping up repeatedly, sometimes without enough time for a full explanation. Here’s a glossary of some of the more commonly used terms. I’ll also be adding to this list as I think them up.

GLOSSARY OF COMMONLY USED TERMS

ajumma :: A middle-aged woman. Can be used for a close friend of the family, or a stranger. Can be made more formal as “ajumoni.”

ajusshi :: A middle-aged man, the counterpart to ajumma.

arubite :: A part-time job, derived from the German word Arbeit, meaning employment. Corresponds to the Japanese cognate arubaito. These days the word is often shortened to al-ba.

banjun drama :: A drama with a shocking twist halfway through.

banmal and joen-dae mal :: Language and politeness is very important in the Korean language, as it is in Japanese. There are strict hierarchies of what form of speech to use, depending on one’s relationship to the conversation partner. Banmal is informal speech — not necessarily rude, but familiar. Used only with those close to you, or younger (i.e. to a teenager or younger) — but when used between one adult to another, even if it’s older to younger, banmal may be seen as rude if sufficient familiarity has not been achieved. Joen-dae mal, then, is the polite form of speech.

chaebol :: A family-owned corporation head, like Samsung or Hyundai. Similar to zaibatsu in Japan. Because of the family-owned nature of the business, there’s no direct equivalent in English. The chaebol (sometypes translated “tycoon”) is the founder of the company, so therefore many kdrama male leads are second-generation chaebols (or third-generation, such as in Hello! Miss). The second-generation chaebol is a common kdrama character because he presents an easy Prince Charming figure — young enough to enjoy the spoils of wealth, but old enough to earn some respect working in the company. Other examples: Both Lee Dong Wook and Lee Junki’s characters in My Girl, Jo Hyun Jae in Only You, Lee Ji Hoon and Ha Seok Jin in Hello! Miss. They can be female, such as Hye Rin in Que Sera Sera.

chae-hada :: A verb, often weirdly translated, meaning “to have indigestion” or heartburn. Often mis-translated as “choke,” although sometimes choke sounds better than the less-poetic indigestion. A common Korean home remedy is to massage the arms to rush the blood toward the hands, tie a finger with string, and prick the fingertip with a needle. The idea is that indigestion is caused by a blockage of “bad blood” or some other negative energy in the bloodstream, and by forcing it to the extremities and releasing it, you are ridding your body of the blockage. I know it sounds like voodoo witch medicine, but I SWEAR THIS WORKS. I am a huge skeptic when it comes to these things, but the blood that comes out is actually blackish, and the relief is instantaneous. Much faster than Pepto.

di-ka :: Digital camera. Comes from shortening the two, since Koreans love to cut words off and mash them together. We’re lazy like that?

dongsaeng :: Meaning “younger sibling,” can refer to a true blood sibling, or a close friend whom you treat as a younger sibling. While dongsaeng applies to both genders, its opposites are gender-specific (see hyung, oppa, and unni).

fusion drama :: A drama that takes elements of separate genres, i.e., fusion sageuk, which would be a historical drama mixed with traits usually not seen in conventional historicals. For instance, Conspiracy in the Court is a fusion sageuk thriller; Hong Gil Dong is a fusion sageuk comedy.

hoobae :: A junior classmate or colleague. A less intimate and/or more professional term than dongsaeng. But, because hoobae is a term used for a younger person, you don’t address them as “hoobae” — you would just use their name. (For instance: She is my hoobae, but I call her Su Jin.)

hyung :: “Older brother,” used between males only. Can be used between blood brothers, or close friends.

hyungnim :: Formal version of hyung, used between men with a slightly formal relationship (i.e., brothers-in-law). Also common parlance for gangsters to use with their bosses and superiors.

Kongji & Patji or Patzzi:: Korean Cinderella story. Kongji’s the nice one, Patji’s the mean one.

makjang :: a sylistic, tonal, or narrative element in dramas that chooses to play up outrageous storylines to keep viewers hooked despite how ridiculous the stories become (adultery, revenge, rape, birth secrets, fatal illnesses, and flirting with incest possibilities are some makjang favorites). Shows can be part of a makjang class of dramas (Wife’s Temptation is a makjang series), or they can have makjang tendencies (Mary Stayed Out All Night went makjang toward the end). Generally considered a negative thing (“Gah, how makjang can you get?”), unless a drama intentionally embraces the style (such as Baker King Kim Tak-gu or Flames of Desire).

mat-seon :: A formal blind date set up with the intention of possibly marrying the participants. Often set up between the parents. Seen in practically every kdrama ever.

melo :: Melodrama, tearjerker.

noona :: “Older sister” used by a male to a female. Again, can be used between blood siblings or merely people who are close friends.

officetel :: A studio apartment. I have no idea why they came up with officetel. Basically an apartment for a single inhabitant, with kitchen and perhaps its own office. And maybe telephone. Or television. Or teleportation device. Edit: apparently a conflation of “office” and “hotel”

oppa :: “Older brother,” used by a girl to an older male. When used between people who are not related, can carry a romantic connotation — many girls call their boyfriends oppa, a process I used to find vaguely creepy as I have many blood oppas (brothers and cousins), but have since become used to. Many times a girl who starts calling a guy oppa may like him or be saying that as an expression of her interest. Not always, of course. But a girl who does NOT like an older unrelated male would likely call him something else, such as sunbae or his full name.

pojangmacha :: Streetside food tents, where you’ll have the obligatory scene of the heartbroken lead drowning their sorrows in ddukkbokki (spicy rice cakes) and soju. They are literally everywhere, and the tents pop up in the eveningtime.

sageuk drama :: Historical drama

sel-ca :: Self-photographed pictures. Often with one’s di-ka in the hopes of becoming an uljjang.

Shim Chung :: Heroine of an ancient folktale known for her virtue and filial piety. Jumped into the sea to save her blind father, rescued for her beauty (naturally) by sea god, eventually returned to land. After she marries him. I think. Calling someone Shim Chung can suggest they are good and sweet, or that they are a goody-two-shoes.

sogaeting :: A blind date. A mishmash of the word “sogae” (introduce) and “meeting.” Much more casual than the marriage-minded mat-seon.

soju :: Korean liquor known for being strong and cheap. Comes in green bottles. Tastes like vodka. Usually around 40 proof (20% alcohol). Also seen in practically every kdrama ever.

sunbae :: Means “senior” and is often used with the suffix “nim” which makes it polite: “sunbae-nim.” In Witch Amusement, Yoo Hee (Han Ga In) calls Joon Ha (Kim Jung Hoon) “sunbae” without the “nim,” which makes it more casual.

uljjang or ulzzang :: A hottie. Specifically one with a beautiful face, as the word is a mishmash of the words “uhl-goohl” (face) and “jjang,” which is slang for “best.” With the weird cult of Internet fame, an uljjang can also refer to a celebrity whose fame arose from posting self-taken photos on their cyworlds. Some famous uljjangs include Park Han Byul, Gu Hye Sun, Kim Ok Bin.

unni :: “Older sister,” used between females only. (In recent years, some men have taken to calling women “unni,” which is a slang appropriation of the term.)

yobo or yeobo :: The word used between spouses, similar to “honey” except that “yobo” is only used between spouses.

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140 Comments from the Beanut Gallery
  1. 51 minjee

    @45:
    No – Aniyo
    Yes – Ne
    Thank you – Kasamhamnida

     (1)


  2. 52 Anonymous

    I’m confused by the changing idioms in the korean language. I’m second generation Korean and I was told many years ago to call women ah-gah-see to flatter them (as opposed to ah-jum-mah). Now, I hear that ah-gah-see is not used any more. What’s the proper term for a woman (maybe a stranger) when you don’t know their proper age?

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  3. 53 Aisha

    Hey..Cool glossary ^_^
    I have a question: What does it mean when in dramas they say reflect? Never got that concept. I saw it first in Goong and then in soulmate.

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  4. 54 Anonymous

    yeah! cool…its good that you have this glossary..

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  5. 55 From Korea

    52/ ah-gah-see (maybe “ah-gah-ssi”) means, a young woman who isn’t married yet. Not kind of ‘virgin’ kind of meaning, but ‘ah-gah-see’ still means the opposite of ‘ah-jum-ma’, a term which means a married woman, and not too young. So, if you call a woman ‘ah-gah-see’, it means that you see the woman young and beautiful enough to consider her state as unmarried. It’s flattering. On the other hand, if you call a woman ‘ah-jum-ma’, it means that you see the woman old and quite not attractive – enough to consider her already married and probably in her middle ages.These terms contain not only meanings of gender and age, but slight shade of meaning of a person’s social state.

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  6. 56 From Korea

    So, you may call a lady ‘ah-gah-see’ if she seems to be young enough,
    and call another lady ‘ah-ju-meo-ni’ if she seems to be in the age of ‘ah-jum-ma’. ‘ah-ju-meo-ni’ and ‘ah-jum-ma’ literally carries the same meaning, but the former sounds more polite and acceptable.
    If you can’t get even the glimpse of it, just call her by the name. She won’t be mad at you ;-P

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  7. 57 ShiningPartner

    i realised that in kdramas, when calling someone jerk/idiot or something along those lines, the words ‘ima’ or ‘shiga’ is used? is this the correct romanisation and what contexts are they usually used in?

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  8. 58 Susa

    Kawaii is not in this glossary? I had to look it up at one point.

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  9. 59 javabeans

    kawaii is japanese, not korean.

     (1)


  10. 60 xxtoeshoesxx

    hi! I was just wondering, what does hallyu mean?

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  11. 61 Janine

    hey guys…right now Im almost finished with my first kdrama- series…dont know why but Im addicted :) And also interested in the language… Could somebody tell me how u say “Sorry” in korean?

    Thank u ;) Great page!

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    • 61.1 Dave

      “mi-an-eh-yo” or “chae-soeng-eh-yo” are the informal terms.

      “mi-an-ham-ni-da” or “chae-soeng-ham-ni-da” is the formal version.

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      • 61.1.1 maryann

        Hi. When exactly do you say byane or byana da. . I don’t know if I speck it right

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  12. 62 Stt

    Heheh, love this <3
    Thanks! :))

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  13. 63 Moineau

    @ xxtoeshoesxx : “hallyu” is the korean word for the “korean wave”…When korean dramas, their actors and the singers and bands begun to export to Taïwan or Japan, ( and even abroad: US, Europe) it has been called “hallyu”…

    I don’t if it’s clear…I don’t know how to explain it in english ^_^ (I’m a french speaker)

    By the way, I hope you’ll understand :-p

    @ Janine: in korean, “sorry” is ” joesonghabnida “

     (0)


    • 63.1 Dave

      When I hear “hallyu”, I like to think of it as the Korean “Hollwood” star.

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  14. 64 Chuck

    @63 Moineau

    Whenever I see the word “sorry” in the subtitles, it sounds like the actor has said something like “bien -eh.” What is that word, if it is not “sorry”?

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  15. 65 h-74

    love it!!!!! Can you continue to add to it????

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  16. 66 yeongwoona

    hi^^

    i love you’re recaps and this glossary (especially when i watch dramas without subtitle, it helps me to uderstand the details!)

    @ chuck mian-hae (or bian-eh) is another way of saying sorry
    just as komawoyo is another way of saying thank you.
    i don’t know why there are too words, is it either because one of them derives from chinese, or (and that’s what i think) is mian-hae and komawo, a less polite term, used between friends and family… ?

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    • 66.1 Dave

      “mi-an-eh” is the short, informal form of “I’m sorry”. Usually used between friends or family.

      “mi-an-eh-yo” is the informal form of “I’m sorry”, very similar to “mi-an-eh”. Used with strangers, it implies just “I am really sorry”.

      “mi-an-ham-ni-da” is the Formal version for “I am sorry”. It implies respect towards an elder.

      The tone used with any of these terms says a lot more than the formality. A short light-hearted “mi-an-eh” can mean you are blowing someone off as unimportant. A downturned face and sad-sounding “mi-an-eh” means they are truly sorry.

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  17. 67 Houstontwin

    I am so happy to see your glossary! I’m embarrassed that I didn’t notice it before.

    The phonemes in Korean are so different from English that I’m not sure that I am hearing this correctly but…I keep hearing a word that sounds like “hazzanim” – at first I thought it meant doctor, when I heard it in “New Heart”. Now that I hear it in other dramas, I suspect it is something respectful like “sir.”

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    • 67.1 Dave

      to answer part of your question, “nim” on the end of a title definitely implies respect.

      I’m not sure of what you meant by “hazza”. Korean can often be difficult to accurately transcribe. The “Hwa” and “Ha” sounds are often mistaken for each other. There is no “Z” sound in Korean – but there are hard and soft versions of “J” and “Ch”. A sound like “hat-chul” might be misheard as “hazzul”.

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    • 67.2 Mak

      It’s likely hajjangnim, which is means boss/president.

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  18. 68 peter

    Hi javabeans, I really like your website. Hope to see more korean words translated in english.

     (0)


  19. 69 Maliax

    Thanx so much. Now I understand what the difference is between hyung and hyungnim. I got so confused in ‘You’re beautiful’ when she called Tae-Kyung hyungnim but called shin woo hyung. Get it now :) !

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  20. 70 kasanny

    Hi! thx for all these…:) I often hear, Shiro which I guess by the gestures means a negative response…But, the point is what about Andé? I dunno how to write it:p ande is no…does it has a difference in terms that perhaps Shiro is formal and the other not?

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    • 70.1 Dave

      “Andé” means “Never!” (Stop! Don’t do that!). It implies you are either forcefully denying something, or trying to stop someone from doing something.

      “Shiro” or “Shiroyo” means “I don’t like it” or “I don’t want to”. It implies a personal dislike of something or some situation.

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  21. 71 yeongwoona

    @ kasanny

    andwe means no, in like “(please) don’t do that” or ” that’s not working/okay”

    shiro is more like, “i don’t like that”, “i don’t want to do it”

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  22. 72 jadded

    This is really helpful! I’m also studying Korean language, and I find it very interesting.. Thanks a lot! *-*

     (0)


  23. 73 curious

    How about jahshi or jahshiga or something like that. I asked my husband and he said it could be nice or mean depending on the context. Like with a friend it would be “ah, jahshi” with a bump or something, but with someone you don’t like it would be like “ya, jahshi!” Does that make any sense? I hope so, I hear this word a lot. SO I guess it could mean buddy or jerk or a-hole depending on the context?

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    • 73.1 obssesd w/ minhyuk

      its not jahshi or jashiga…d correct romanization of it (as far as i know) is jassik or jassik a… it means “good for nothing” or something negative that pertains to the character of an individual..

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  24. 74 hazel

    what is korean word for crying or cry ..ulgo?

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    • 74.1 Dave

      Not sure of the correct Romanization, but in English words it would be “ooh rye oh”.

       (0)


  25. 75 iole

    hope this may help..

    Good morning —- An nyong haseyo
    Good afternoon, Hello —- An nyong hashim nikka (polite)
    Good night ——An nyonghi jumuship siyo
    How do you do?(meeting for the first time)—– Ch’oum poepget sumnida
    My name is _____. —— Chonun ______ imnida
    How are you? —– Otto shimnikka?
    Hello?(on the phone) —- Yoboseyo?
    Good-bye.(to person leaving)–Annyonghi kasayo.
    –An nyonghi kaship shiyo (polite)
    Good-bye.(to person staying)–An nyonghi kyesayo.
    —An nyonghi kyeshipshiyo(polite).
    Do you speak English?—Yeongeorul malsum halsu isseoyo
    Thank you–Kamsa hamnida
    You’re welcome–Chonmaneyo
    I am sorry—Mian hamnida
    Excuse me–Shilye hamnida
    Do your best–Yol shim hi hasaeyo
    I understand–Alge sumnida
    I don’t understand–Moruge sumnida
    Congratulations–Chukha hamnida
    Cheers!–Gombae!
    Congratulations–Chukha hamnida
    Yes–Ne
    No—Aniyo
    What is this?—Muot imnikka?
    How much is this?—Igotson olma imnikka?
    What?—Mout imnikka?
    Where?—Odi imnikka?
    When?–Onchae imnikka?
    Why?—Wai kuroshimnikka?
    Who?—Nugo shimnikka?

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    • 75.1 Lynnza

      to jb, and iole for this commnt.. kamsa hamnida ;)

      i’m from Kuala Lumpur. long time ago i used to follow winter sonata on the telly here in Malaysia. but have stopped afterwards. nowadays, stumbling upon you’re beautiful.. and then pasta.. and then coffee prince.. i could not stop!

      starting last couple of months up until now.. i think i’ve gone through more than 20 k dramas… ohh i’m sooo addicted!

      one thing i’ve been wondering.. as i usually watch the romcom instead of other version; is it a real scenario in Korea whereby there’s always 2 guys chasing after 1 girl? you korean girls sure are so lucky if this is the case ;D

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  26. 76 Malika

    What does gajima or kajima mean? I hear it often in kdramas and songs?
    And Thank you sounds in different words i noticed – kumaoyo, kamsahamnida, ch… i can’t write it i don’t know how))

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    • 76.1 Baeleena

      Gajima/Kajima mean don’t go or don’t leave.
      Thank you in korean had many forms, depend in whom you talking to–whether it’s a friend or someone u familiar with u’ll use-komawoyo, on a stranger u’ll use-komapsumnida, on a person whom slightly older or whom u want to give ur respect use-kamsahammida.

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  27. 77 vin

    great site..sometimes when im tuning in to korean dramas, the korean news will be on….during this time, when the the newscaster is annoucing the weather…they always end each sentence with something sounding like”smita”…….does anyone know the meaning?

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  28. 78 K-Drama tv rating, schedule, ad break?

    How about a Glossary about K-Drama TV rating? For example Baking King ep 30 got a 50.8 (1st) rating. What does that 50.8 means? % share of tv sets who are turn on? % of Korean tv sets, whether they are on or not?

    What does that 1st mean? (1st of that night? first of the week?)

    Also, a little information about K-Drama schedule would be helpful. 20:55, 19:40 airtime etc…

    Are there any ad breaks? Why are they run on two consecutive days (Mon/Tues, Wed/Thurs, Sat/Sun)?

    Thanks. I believe the above would be very relevant.

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  29. 79 Jennifer

    I’ve only recently started watching Korean dramas and noticed the use of “dang-shin” in dialogues to connote “you,” even in formal speech. Can “dang-shin” be used to address someone politely, or is it considered rude? My mother has told me it is really only used between spouses and can translate to “honey” or “dear.” Just curious because I don’t want to insult someone with that word if it doesn’t mean what I think it means.

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    • 79.1 MsScorpion

      I don’t know what “dang-shin” means, but I do know that the word meaning honey or dear is “yeobo” and it’s used only between married couples.

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      • 79.1.1 Dave

        “dang-shin” does indeed mean you. Commonly used in situations where you have already been introduced. Korean (like English) does not require a subject in their sentences; one might reply to someone asking directions “Go down the street – it is on the right side”, instead of “You need to go down the street and look on your right .” Usually when you see “Dang-shin”, the person already has some relationship (love or hate or someone they know) and they are making a point be emphasising “you”. “Dang-shin” is more polite than “No”, which often indcates “You” used in anger or an insult. The formal version is “Dang-shin-un”.

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  30. 80 Sydney

    OMG this Place is sweeet!!!!

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  31. 81 zazuki

    thanks for making this:)
    there are times when at the end of the word there’s like neun, yi and reul. like naneun instead of na. is there a difference to how you use these words?
    and what’s the purpose of puttting ‘geotdeun’ and ‘ neun dae’ at the end of the sentence?

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    • 81.1 Dave

      “nun” or “un” are added to words to indicate Formal speech. (“nun” follows a word ending in a vowel; “un” follows a consonant ending)

      I forget exactly why “Reul” is used, but I think it is the same thing. For example, Han-guk-mal” is Korean language, but it is often modified to “Han-guk-ma-reul”. I can’t think of any examples of “yi” at the moment.

      “Goetduen” or “kattoen” literally means “-like” (comparing something to another).

      “nuen dae” means “while” when attached to a verb. “Hak-yo kka” means “Go to school”, while “Hak-yo kka-nun-dae” means “while going to school”

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  32. 82 paulbg

    The suffix -(n)eun -는/은 is a topic marker, tells you the noun it’s attached to has already been mentioned or is already on the speaker/listener’s minds, kinda sorta like our definite article but not really. Can also be used to add contrast. Contrasts with the subject marker -i/ga/iga 이/가/이가, usually used when introducing a new subject.
    The suffix -(r)eul -를/을 is a direct object marker (“accusative” for you Europeans), but the verbs that take it don’t always correspond to things we would think of as transitive in English.
    None of these have anything to do with level of politeness or formality, except that there’s a tendency to leave them out in casual speech.

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  33. 83 sy

    Thanks for the extensive glossary! :)
    Does anyone know the meaning of “daebak”?
    Keep seeing the word popping up but I’ve got no idea what that means…

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  34. 84 Sandy

    What is the Korean word used for ‘Mister’ in Boys over Flowers drama when Jan Di and Gu Joon Pyo are locked in the railway?

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  35. 85 mhay

    can you please also include korean word for a girlfriend or boy friend is it if a boy shingu namja if a girl shingu yeoja
    and also what is Jangi /jagi (Sorry I dont really with the correct spelling

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  36. 86 LoonyLizard

    What works even better than the “bad blood” remedy for chae-hada: 2 tablespoons of white vinegar. This mild acid helps to break down the food still in the stomach and move it on its way.

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  37. 87 jinhee

    OH GAWD.

    I got so close to calling my Korean guy friends “oppa”. O.O’
    Thank goodness I read this before that happened. XD

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  38. 88 Cat

    Thanks so much for this – subtitles are rarely helpful in understanding the Korean context.

    I wonder if you can help me with a word I heard over and over in Haeshin, which would romanize to something like sew-na?

    It was used by Yon to address Goong-Bok (although I seem to recall he switched to something else more formal once Goong-bok became Jang Bogo and moved up in the world).

    This word was invariably subtitled as Goong-bok’s name, which it obviously wasn’t, which was quite irritating! Would love to know what he was really saying, and what the implications were.

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  39. 89 Cat

    There are certain phrases I hear over and over, such as “I have something to tell you,” “Do you have a death wish!?” and “Kill me now!”

    Am I imagining it, or is “get some rest,” used more often to end a conversation than to express real nurturing? “Don’t worry,” even in situations where this is absurd or impossible advice also occurs in virtually every episode of every drama.

    I’d love to see some other examples of the most over-used phrases in Korean drama, and to hear which of these phrases are as common in Korean daily life (or not). Watching from the US with no Korean frame of reference, it’s not always obvious what’s makjang, and what’s just culturally different.

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  40. 90 Mihansa

    I know this would be a big project, but would love to see the Hangul added for the glossary terms. A lot of us K-drama-lovers are also Korean language learners, and it helps to understand the pronunciation when we think of it in Korean letters instead of (or in addition to) romanization.

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  41. 91 mejiak

    “Daebak!” what does it mean?

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    • 91.1 Fay Ellis

      Awesome

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      • 91.1.1 mejiak

        Thanks Fay Ellis! ^-^
        at one point i saw it everywhere but i couldnt imagine what it meant hehe.

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        • 91.1.1.1 Fay

          I know this is late, but you are welcome

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    • 91.2 wag-a-muffin

      Jack Pot!

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  42. 92 Josh

    seonbae is wrong. I talked with my girlfriend and she said that the term is not just for people older. It can be for people of higher social status, rank, or name. Particularly, what is wrong is the age. Many times in the work place someone younger will be the seonbae and he/she will in charger and the elder will come back to work for whatever reason and become a hoobae.

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  43. 93 skwonto

    Thank you for defining arubite. I inferred that it meant “part time job” but I couldn’t even imagine what English word it resembled. I would not have guessed that the word comes the German word Arbeit.

    One question, in recent dramas, they have been using a word that resembles “cool”. What are they saying? I find that they use it for different purposes.

    thank you again! fabulous glossary!

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  44. 94 Autumn

    much needed thank ya

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  45. 95 Eriinnye

    Hey :)
    Great glossary! Would you mind if I use some explanation’s and translate them into German? I am the owner of an German drama blog and there aren’t really good explanation’s in German. Therefore it would be great if I could use some of yours.
    Of Course there is going to be a big link which leads to this page!
    Let me know! Have a nice day :))

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  46. 96 Linda

    Can you put “aegyo” on the glossary page and explain what it is? I’ve been reading it in your recent posts but it doesn’t explain what it is.

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  47. 97 mikan

    Thanks for this glossary.. I used to wonder what “sageuk” means, hehe.. I finally ‘learned’ or somehow understand few words through Gaksital~ “unni,” “hyung,” and “noona” ..hehehe.

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  48. 98 Jeliefish

    hi ^^

    can I ask how to pronounce “sageuk?”

    “Sayguk.” Is it right?

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    • 98.1 Also from Korea

      hi

      I dont think that is the proper pronunciation..;(
      I think “S-ah-g-k” will be closer! hehe

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  49. 99 karel

    what is ‘teacher’ in korean? i heard they say kind of ‘sem’ in school 2013

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  50. 100 TechnoKeats

    How about ‘seo-bi-seu’/ service…. meaning “for free”?

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