Baek Jin-hee began her career as a model at 15 years old. She then ventured into theater before making her TV debut through a supporting role in the SBS drama Loving You a Thousand Times that aired from 2009 to 2010. Baek Jin-hee then appeared in three movies in 2009, namely The Naked Kitchen, Bandhobi, and Missing Person. The viewers started to really take notice of her in the 2011 MBC sitcom High Kick 3: Revenge of the Short Legged. In 2013, she had her acting breakthrough after landing the role of Tanashiri, the villainous empress in the MBC sageuk Empress Ki. Her work in the series earned her the Best New Actress trophy in both the 2013 MBC Drama Awards and the 50th Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2015, Baek Jin-hee portrayed the titular role in the hit MBC family drama My Daughter, Geum Sa-wol, which ended with a national viewership rating of 33.6 percent.

On March 26, 2017, Baek Jin-hee’s agency confirmed that the actress has been dating her My Daughter, Geum Sa-wol co-star Yoon Hyun-min since April 2016. The couple parted ways in 2023.