Cha Eun-woo landed a cameo appearance in the film My Brilliant Life in 2014. He debuted with the South Korean boy group Astro in February 2016 with the five-track extended play Spring Up. That same year, the group released their second and third EPs titled Summer Vibes and Autumn Story, respectively. Cha Eun-woo also served as one of the hosts of MBC’s Show! Music Core from 2016 to 2018. In 2018, he was cast in his first TV leading role in JTBC’s My ID Is Gangnam Beauty, which helped increase his popularity. He was also named Best New Actor at the 11th Korea Drama Awards for his work in the series. In 2019, he headlined the MBC sageuk Rookie Historian Gu Hae-ryung, opposite Shin Se-kyung. His performance in the series won him an Excellence Award at the 2019 MBC Drama Awards. In 2020, he became a fixed cast member of the SBS variety show Master in the House, which won him the Rookie Award at the 14th SBS Entertainment Awards. From December 2020 to February 2021, he starred in the webtoon-based tvN series True Beauty.

During a guesting on tvN’s Problematic Men, it was revealed that Cha Eun-woo got good grades in school. He was also school president in sixth grade and the captain of the soccer and basketball teams in middle school. Additionally, he can play the guitar, piano, and violin well. He has a brother who is two years younger than him.