Cha Ye-ryun debuted as an actress in 2005 with a supporting role in the horror film Voice. She then bagged her first television acting gig in the 2007 KBS2 romance melodrama Bad Love. In 2008, she appeared in the SBS series Working Mom, which won her the New Star Award at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2011, she was nominated for Best New Actress at the MBC Drama Awards for her work in hit series Royal Family. In 2014, she starred in the romantic comedy film The Actress Is Too Much. That same year, she acted alongside Rain and Krystal in the SBS series She’s So Lovable, which earned her an Excellence Award nomination at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2016, she joined the main cast of the MBC melo Dazzling Temptation. In 2019, she worked with Choi Myung-gil in the KBS2 daily series Gracious Revenge, which gave her an Excellence Award at the KBS Drama Awards.

Cha Ye-ryun married her Dazzling Temptation co-star Joo Sang-wook in 2017. She gave birth to a daughter in July 2018.