Chae Soo-bin made her acting debut in the 2014 film My Dictator. In 2015, she collected Best New Actress trophies at both the 29th KBS Drama Awards and the 4th APAN Star Awards for the dramas House of Bluebird and Sassy Go Go. In 2016, she gained an Excellence Award nomination at the 30th KBS Drama Awards for her work in the hit sageuk Moonlight Drawn by Clouds. She then began transitioning into leading roles with the 2017 MBC sageuk drama Rebel: Thief Who Stole the People, opposite Yoon Kyun-sang. In 2018, she was cast in the SBS drama Where Stars Land, in which she earned an Excellence Award at the 2018 SBS Drama Awards. The series also paved the way for Chae Soo-bin and co-star Lee Je-hoon’s appointment as honorary ambassadors of the Incheon International Airport.  In 2021, Chae Soo-bin, along with Jang Ki-yong and Krystal Jung, headlined the romantic comedy film Sweet and Sour.

Chae Soo-bin’s birth name is Bae Soo-bin. She was given her screen name to avoid confusion with actor Bae Soo-bin. She is close friends with her fellow actress Jo Hye-jung. In an episode of the SBS travel-reality show Flower Crew, Chae Soo-bin revealed that she had her real-life first kiss when she was in 10th grade.