Go Kyu-pil began acting as a child, making his debut in the 1993 children’s film Kid Cop. Since then, he has played supporting roles in numerous movies and TV series. In 2003, he portrayed the Prince of Baekje in director Lee Jun-ik’s war comedy film Once Upon a Time in a Battlefield. In 2007, he starred in the SBS series Mackerel Run. He also became part of the films Baby and I in 2008 and Mother in 2009. In 2016, he was cast in OCN’s crime comedy Police Unit 38. In 2018, he appeared in the MBC series Investigation Couple and returned for its second season the following year. He also worked with Kim Nam-gil in the 2019 SBS dramedy The Fiery Priest, which won the Best Supporting Team at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2020, he joined the MBC fantasy thriller Kairos, which scored him a Best Supporting Actor nomination at the MBC Drama Awards.

In November 2023, Go Kyu-pil married his long-time girlfriend Amin, who is a singer.