Jang Mi-hee made her acting debut in 1976, playing the eponymous heroine in the movie Seong Chun-hyang. It was followed by the hit 1977 film Winter Woman, which propelled Jang Mi-hee to stardom. In 1980, she starred in the KBS single-episode drama Eulhwa, in which she won Best Actress for TV at the 17th Baeksang Arts Awards. In 1990, she won another Best Actress trophy at the 26th Baeksang Arts Awards for her performance in the 1989 movie The Land of Fire. In 1991, she headlined the critically acclaimed film Death Song, where she played the role of a woman who falls in love with a married man studying composition. She won various Best Actress accolades for her work in the movie. In 2008, she became part of the popular KBS2 family weekend series Mom’s Dead Upset. The drama reached a peak viewership rating of 42.7 percent and was also named Best Drama at the 45th Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2018, she won a Top Excellence Award at the KBS Drama Awards for the family weekend drama Shall We Live Together.

In 2007, Jang Mi-hee confessed to lying about her academic background. In an interview, she expressed her embarrassment and willingness to accept criticism over her action.