Jo Dong-hyuk began his acting career in 2002 with a minor role in the comedy film Make It Big. In 2007, he played Han Ji-hye’s older brother in the hit KBS1 daily series Likeable or Not, which recorded a peak viewership ratings of 43.9 percent. In 2009, he acted alongside Jang Hyuk and Lee Sang-woo in the psychological thriller film Searching for the Elephant. In 2011, he joined the main cast of the KBS2 medical drama Brain, which scored a nomination for Best TV Drama at the 48th Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2014, he starred in the OCN crime thriller Bad Guys as a contract killer. In 2019, he was cast as one of the main characters in Channel A’s Weekday Afternoon Lovers, which was followed by another major role in OCN’s Rugal in 2020.

In 2017, Jo Dong-hyuk confirmed his relationship with professional volleyball player Han Song-yi.