Jung So-min made her acting debut in the 2009 short film Worst Friends, which also starred Kim Soo-hyun. She landed her first TV acting role in the 2010 SBS drama Bad Guy. This was immediately followed by her first leading role in MBC’s Playful Kiss, which was based on the popular manga Itazura na Kiss. The romantic comedy series received low ratings in Korea, but its popularity overseas further propelled Jung So-min to fame. She also received a Best New Actress nomination at the 2010 MBC Drama Awards for her performance in the drama. In 2017, she was cast in the KBS2 family weekend series Father Is Strange, in which she was nominated for an Excellence Award at the 2017 KBS Drama Awards. She was again nominated for an Excellence Award at the 2020 KBS Drama Awards for her role in the mental health drama Soul Repairer.

Jung So-min’s father was initially against her decision to become an actress. In an interview, she revealed that she and her father had an awkward relationship for nine years because of his disapproval of her chosen profession. She has a younger brother. She did ballet in her younger years and also learned the Korean traditional dance. Jung so-min dated her Father Is Strange co-star Lee Joon for three years.