Woo Do-hwan began his acting career with a cameo appearance in the 2011 MBN sitcom You’re Here, You’re Here, You’re Really Here. In 2016, he acted a minor role in the movie Master, which earned him a Best New Actor for Film nomination at the 53rd Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2017, he bagged a main role in the OCN mystery thriller Rescue Me, in which he was nominated for Best New Actor and Most Popular Actor for TV at the 54th Baeksang Arts Awards. That same year, he starred in the KBS2 action series Mad Dog, which won him Best New Actor at the 31st KBS Drama Awards. In 2018, he led the MBC drama The Great Seducer, opposite Joy. His performance in the series scored him an Excellence Award at the 2018 MBC Drama Awards. In 2019, he acted alongside Park Seo-joon and veteran actor Ahn Sung-ki in the action horror film The Divine Fury, in which he was named Best New Actor at the 40th Golden Cinema Film Festival. In 2020, he appeared in the SBS romantic fantasy series The King: Eternal Monarch.

Woo Do-hwan enlisted for his mandatory military service on July 6, 2020. He majored in performance and film at the Dankook University.