Yoo In-young began her entertainment career as a model before making her acting debut in 2005. In 2007, she won Best Actress in a Special/HDTV/One-Act Drama for her work in an episode of KBS2’s Drama City. That same year, she starred in the hit KBS1 series Likeable or Not, in which she was nominated for Best New Actress at the KBS Drama Awards and the 44th Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2012, she became part of the SBS weekend drama Dummy Mommy, which won her an Excellence Award at the 20th Korea Culture and Entertainment Awards. In 2013, she became the first Korean actor to exclusively represent cosmetic brand Elizabeth Arden across Asia. In 2015, she took home a Special Award at the SBS Drama Awards for her performance in the romantic melodrama Mask. In 2017, she acted alongside Kim Ha-neul and Lee Won-geun in the psychological thriller film Misbehavior, in which she was named Best Supporting Actress at the 22nd Chunsa Film Art Awards.

Yoo In-young maintains a close friendship with her Likeable or Not co-star Kim Ji-suk.