Ahn Woo-yeon made his acting debut through a supporting role in the 2015 web drama Alchemist. He then went on to star in more significant roles such as in the 2016 KBS2 family weekend drama Five Kids, where he played the role of an elementary school teacher and the love interest of Im Soo-hyang’s character. Ahn Woo-yeon was then cast as Do Bong-ki, the brother of Park Bo-young’s titular character in the 2017 JTBC fantasy series Strong Woman Do Bong-soon.  In 2018, he was nominated as Best New Actor at the SBS Drama Awards for his work in the drama Tale of a Good Witch. That same year, Ahn Woo-yeon made his big screen debut in the movie Omok Girl.

On April 30, 2019, Ahn Woo-yeon enlisted for his mandatory military service. He was officially discharge on November 29, 2020 after serving as an active-duty soldier.

In 2021, he made his acting comeback through the fantasy romance drama Scripting Your Destiny, where he played the role of the God of Destiny.