Bae Soo-bin began his acting career in 2001 with the movie Club Butterfly. In 2008, he played the role of King Jeongjo in the sageuk drama Painter of the Wind, which gave him the New Star Award at the 2008 SBS Drama Awards. He was then cast in the 2009 top-rating SBS series Brilliant Legacy, which recorded a peak rating of 47.1 percent for its final episode. He reunited with his Brilliant Legacy co-star Han Hyo-joo in the 2010 MBC sageuk drama Dong Yi, which was a hit across Asia. In 2013, Bae Soo-bin played the role of a righteous prosecutor-turned-ambitious man in the KBS2 drama Secret. He was named the Best Supporting Actor in the 2013 KBS Drama Awards for his performance in the drama. In 2020, he landed a lead role in the JTBC series Graceful Friends.

On December 18, 2020, Bae Soo-bin’s label Origin Entertainment confirmed that the actor and his wife divorced in 2019. The two married in 2013. They have two children together.