Bong Tae-kyu made his acting debut in 2000 through the movie Tears. In 2003, he was cast in the sexy film A Good Lawyer’s Wife. He was named Best New Actor at the 6th Director’s Cut Awards for his performance in the movie. He also received nominations at the 24th Blue Dragon Film Awards and 41st Grand Bell Awards. In 2015, Bong Tae-kyu starred in the KBS drama special Trains Don’t Stop at Noryangjin Station, which won him the Best Actor in a Special/One-Act Drama at the 2015 KBS Drama Awards. In 2018, he became part of the SBS legal drama Return. His portrayal of an impulsive and abusive professor earned him various acting citations, including a nomination for Best Supporting Actor for TV at the 54th Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2020, he landed a role in the megahit SBS series Penthouse, in which he won the Excellence Award for an Actor in a Mid-Length/Long Drama at the 2020 SBS Drama Awards.

Bong Tae-kyu married star photographer Hasisi Park in October 2015. They met at a social gathering and their friendship evolved into a romantic relationship. They have two children: a son and a daughter. In 2018, Bong Tae-kyu and his son Si-ha appeared on The Return of Superman together.