Cha Ji-yeon debuted as an actress in 2006 with the musical The Lion King. She has since become part of numerous stage productions such as Wicked, Rebecca, and Dreamgirls. In 2011, she released her debut single titled Where Are You. That same year, she landed her first screen role in the SBS series Scent of a Woman. In 2015, she appeared in the period drama film The Treacherous. This was followed by a major role in the omnibus film Horror Stories III in 2016. In 2020, she was cast as a regular member of the tvN variety show Double Casting. In 2021, she starred as Empress Myeongseong in the musical performance film Lost Face 1895 and then joined SBS’s Taxi Driver. In 2022, she acted alongside Kim Hee-sun in the Netflix series Remarriage & Desires.

Cha Ji-yeon married a fellow musical performer named Yoon Eun-chae in 2015. They welcomed a son in 2016.