Kim Tae-ho plunged into the entertainment industry in 2006 through the KBS reality talent show Survival Star Audition, where he won the Daesang. He adopted the screen name Choi Jin-hyuk in 2010 before the airing of his first starring drama, the SBS family series It’s Okay, Daddy’s Girl. In 2012, Choi Jin-hyuk made his big screen debut through Love Clinique. The following year, he landed a supporting role in the MBC fantasy sageuk Gu Family Book, which earned him the Best New Actor award at the 2nd APAN Star Awards. He was also nominated as Best New Actor for TV at the 50th Baeksang Arts Awards and the 2013 MBC Drama Awards for his work in the series.  He next starred in the SBS teen drama The Heirs, in which he won the New Star Award at the 2013 SBS Drama Awards. In 2014, he got Best New Actor nominations at the 51st Grand Bell Awards and the 35th Blue Dragon Film Awards for the movie The Divine Move. He then won an Excellence Award at the 2014 MBC Awards for the legal series Pride and Prejudice. In 2018, he took home a Top Excellence Award at the SBS Drama Awards for his role in the hit series The Last Empress.

In 2012, Choi Jin-hyuk confirmed is relationship with his My Daughter the Flower co-star Sohn Eun-seo. But after dating for over half a year, the two stars broke up reportedly due to their busy schedules. Choi Jin-hyuk enlisted for his mandatory military service on March 31, 2015. Seven months later, he was discharged due to a knee injury.