Chun Woo-hee debuted in 2004 with a minor role in the film Love, So Divine. In 2011, she starred in the hit comedy drama movie Sunny, in which she scored Best Supporting Actress nominations at the 48th Grand Bell Awards and the 32nd Blue Dragon Film Awards. In 2014, she bagged the leading role as the title character in the coming-of-age indie film Han Gong-ju. She picked up numerous acting trophies for her performance in the movie, including the Best Leading Actress at the 35th Blue Dragon Film Awards and the Best New Actress for Film at the 51st Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2016, she appeared in director Na Hong-jin’s horror film The Wailing, in which she earned several Best Supporting Actress nominations. In 2017, she was nominated for Best Actress at the 54th Grand Bell Awards for the drama film One Day. In 2019, she gained another Best Actress nomination at the 28th Buil Film Awards for her work in the thriller film Idol. In 2020, she was named Best Actress at the Faro Island Film Festival for the romantic drama movie Vertigo.

Chun Woo-hee is good friends with her fellow actress Moon Geun-young.