Go Min-shi made her directorial and acting debut in the 2016 short film Parallel Novel, which took home the top prize at the 4th SNS Three-Minute Film Festival. In 2017, she landed her first television role in the SBS sageuk My Sassy Girl. In 2018, she appeared in the mystery horror action film The Witch: Part 1. The Subversion, which earned her a Best Supporting Actress nomination at the 55th Grand Bell Awards. In 2019, she became part of the Netflix webtoon-based series Love Alarm. That same year, she acted a main role in the SBS drama Secret Boutique, which won her Best New Actress at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2020, she joined the main cast of the Netflix apocalyptic horror series Sweet Home, which gave her the Best Newcomer Actress citation at the 3rd Asia Contents Awards. In 2021, she led the KBS2 drama Youth of May, opposite her Sweet Home co-star Lee Do-hyun.

Go Min-shi developed a close friendship with actor Song Kang, whom she starred with in Love Alarm and Sweet Home. Before becoming an actress, she worked as a wedding planner.