Gong Seung-yeon trained to become a singer under SM Entertainment from 2005 to 2012 before leaving and pursuing acting instead. In 2015, she won the New Star Award at the SBS Drama Awards for her appearances in Six Flying Dragons and Heard It Through the Grapevine. In 2016, she became part of the main cast of the KBS2 series The Master of Revenge. Her work in the drama earned her Best New Actress nominations at the 30th KBS Drama Awards and the 53rd Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2017, she landed her first leading role in the Netflix youth sageuk My Only Love Song. The following year, she headlined the KBS2 series Are You Human Too, opposite Seo Kang-joon. She was nominated for an Excellence Award at the KBS Drama Awards for her performance in the drama. In 2019, she led the JTBC sageuk series Flower Crew: Joseon Marriage Agency along with Kim Min-jae.

Gong Seung-yeon is the older sister of Twice member Jeongyeon.