Hoya served as the lead rapper and main dancer of the South Korean boy group Infinite. They debuted on June 9, 2010 with the extended play First Invasion. They released their first studio album titled Over the Top in July 2011. In January 2013, Hoya debuted in Infinite H, the first official subgroup of Infinite, together with Dongwoo. The duo released two extended plays titled Fly High and Fly Again in 2013 and 2015, respectively. In 2017, Hoya left Infinite and Infinite H following the expiration of his contract with Woollim Entertainment. In March 2018, he made his solo debut with the mini album Shower.

Hoya made his acting debut in the 2012 hit tvN series Answer Me 1997. The drama’s success increased his popularity. In 2014, he became part of the SBS series She’s So Lovable, which also starred his Infinite bandmate L. Hoya then led the 2016 movie Hiya, which also served as his big screen debut. His portrayal of a high school student who rejects his troublemaker older brother earned him the Best New Actor trophy at the 36th Golden Cinema Festival. In 2017, he was nominated for Best New Actor at the MBC Drama Awards for his performance in the workplace romantic comedy Radiant Office.

Hoya began his mandatory military service on February 7, 2019 and was discharged on December 6, 2020. He was actually born as Lee Ho-dong, but his classmates teased him for sharing the same name with comedian Kang Ho-dong. Because of this, his parents legally changed his birth name to Lee Ho-won.