Im Jung-eun debuted as an actress in the 2002 film Make It Big. In 2007, she starred in the mystery thriller movie Shadows in the Palace, in which she was nominated for Best Supporting Actress at the 28th Blue Dragon Film Awards. In 2008, she appeared in the SBS series Aquarius, which won her the New Star Award at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2012, she joined the cast of the film Love Clinique, which earned her the Best Supporting Actress trophy at the 2012 Korea Culture and Entertainment Awards. In 2013, she received an Excellence Award nomination at the KBS Drama Awards for her performance in the daily drama Ruby Ring. In 2020, she played a supporting role in the hit KBS2 family series Once Again.

Im Jung-eun married a non-celebrity in June 2014. A few months later, it was confirmed that she was pregnant with her first child.