Joo Bo-young began her acting career appearing in small roles in several feature films series such as Salut D’Amour in 2015. In 2018, she starred in the short film Soh, which won her the Face in Shorts Award at the 16th Asiana International Short Film Festival. She gained more attention when she was cast as a computer programmer in the 2020 tvN series Start-Up. In 2021, she became part of the KBS2 romantic period melodrama Youth of May. In 2022, she appeared as a fencing athlete in the tvN youth romance drama Twenty Five Twenty One. That same year, she joined the main cast of the KBS2 legal-action series Bad Prosecutor.