On July 29, 2014, Joy was introduced as the fourth member of the South Korean girl group Red Velvet. They made their debut in August 2014 with the digital single Happiness. Their first studio album titled The Red, which was released on September 9, 2015, received critical and commercial success. It debuted at the top of the Billboard World Albums Chart and South Korea’s Gaon Album Chart. In November 2017, they released their second studio album titled Perfect Velvet, which once again topped the Billboard World Albums Chart. In 2018, the group released their debut Japanese mini album titled #CookieJar, which peaked at number 3 on Oricon’s Weekly Album Chart. In 2021, Joy made her official solo debut with the special extended play Hello.

Joy appeared on the fourth season of the MBC reality variety show We Got Married in June 2015. Her participation in the program won her the New Star Award and the Best Couple Award with BtoB member Yook Sung-jae at the 2015 MBC Entertainment Awards. In 2017, Joy landed her first leading role in the tvN drama The Liar and His Lover, which was based on a popular manga. She received the Newcomer Award at the 2017 OSEN Cable TV Awards for her work in the drama. In 2018, Joy was cast as lead in the MBC series The Great Seducer, opposite Woo Do-hwan. She was nominated for Best New Actress and an Excellence Award at the 2018 MBC Drama Awards for her performance in the series.

Joy was born on Jeju Island and was raised in Dobong District, Seoul. She is the eldest child in her family.