Jung Chae-yeon debuted with DIA in 2015 with the studio album Do It Amazing, which featured the lead single Somehow. The album reached number 11 on the Gaon Album Chart. In January 2016, she participated in Mnet’s reality show Produce 101, where she finished in seventh place. This earned her a spot in the show’s derivative girl group I.O.I. They released their debut extended play titled Chrysalis in May 2016.

Jung Chae-yeon made her acting debut with a cameo appearance in the 2016 tvN series Drinking Solo. In 2017, she played the teenage counterpart of Lee Yeon-hee’s character in SBS’s Reunited Worlds, which won her the Best Rookie Award at that year’s Asia Artist Awards. In 2018, she bagged her first leading role in the KBS2 drama special To Jenny, which gave her the Best New Actress trophy at the 31st Grimae Awards. In 2019, she starred in the Netflix series My First First Love. In 2021, she joined the main cast of the KBS2 sageuk The King’s Affection, which earned her a Best New Actress nomination at the KBS Drama Awards.

Jung Chae-yeon graduated from the School of Performing Arts Seoul in 2016.