Jung Hye-sung began her acting career in the 2009 MBC series Friend, Our Legend. In 2015, she became part of the MBC daily drama A Daughter Just Like You, in which she was nominated for Best New Actress at the MBC Drama Awards. In 2016, she was nominated for Best Supporting Actress at the 30th KBS Drama Awards for her work in the hit sageuk Moonlight Drawn by Clouds. Also in 2016, she appeared on MBC’s reality variety show We Got Married, where she was partnered with Gong Myung. In 2017, she took home the Best Supporting Actress trophy at the 31st KBS Drama Awards for the dramas Chief Kim and Manhole.  That same year, she landed her first leading role in the SBS series Mysterious Il-seung, opposite Yoon Kyun-sang. She was nominated for an Excellence Award at the 25th SBS Drama Awards for her performance in drama. In 2019, she made her big screen debut in the romance drama film Mate. In 2021, she was cast in the SBS supernatural sageuk drama Joseon Exorcist, which was cancelled after only two episodes over its alleged historical inaccuracies.

Jung Hye-sung is good friends with her fellow actress Kim Hye-yoon.