Jung Sang-hoon became part of the action comedy film Volcano High in 2001. In 2005, he was cast in a supporting role in the SBS drama Green Rose. In 2013, he was included as a cast member of the tvN program Saturday Night Live Korea, in which he won the PD’s Choice Award at the 2016 tvN10 Awards. He was also nominated for a Special Award at the 24th SBS Drama Awards for his work in the 2016 series Jealousy Incarnate. In 2017, he joined the cast of the top-rating JTBC drama Woman of Dignity starring Kim Hee-sun and Kim Sun-ah. He won Best Supporting Actor at the 1st The Seoul Awards and also scored a Best Supporting Actor nomination at the 54th Baeksang Arts Awards for his performance in the series. In 2018, he received an Excellence Award at the MBC Drama Awards for the weekend drama My Husband Oh Jak-doo.

Jung Sang-hoon has been married to his wife since 2012. They have three children together.