Jung Woong-in first gained attention for his roles in the 1990s SBS dramas Eun-shil and Wave. In 2011, he was cast in the KBS2 family weekend series Ojakkyo Brothers, which won him Best Supporting Actor at the KBS Drama Awards. In 2013, he became part of the hit SBS fantasy romance I Hear Your Voice. The drama was extended by two episodes due to its popularity. His chilling portrayal of a murderer in the series won him several acting trophies including a Top Excellence Award at the 6th Korea Drama Awards and a Special Award at the 2013 SBS Drama Awards. The following year, he won another Special Award at the 2014 SBS Drama Awards for the series Endless Love. In 2017, he became part of the top-rating tvN drama Smart Prison Living. In 2018, he was cast in the SBS series Ms. Ma, Nemesis, in which he received an Excellence Award at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2019, he won Best Supporting Actor at the KBS Drama Awards for his role as an abusive husband in 9.9 Billion Won Woman.

Jung Woong-in and his wife have been married since 2006. They have three daughters.