Jung Yumi debuted in a chewing gum commercial in 2003 and has since appeared in several television dramas and films. She came into prominence after portraying the role of a gentle girlfriend in the 2011 SBS melodrama Thousand Day Promise. Her work in the series earned her the New Star Award at the 2011 SBS Drama Awards. In 2012, she was able to showcase her versatility as an actress when she was cast as a scheming secretary in the SBS fantasy romantic comedy Rooftop Prince. She took home an Excellence Award at the 2012 SBS Drama Awards for her work in the drama. In 2016, she won another Excellence Award, this time at the 5th APAN Star Awards for the SBS sageuk Six Flying Dragons. In 2018, she starred as lead in the MBC crime drama Investigation Couple, opposite Jung Jae-young. She won a Top Excellence Award at the 2018 MBC Drama Awards and a Best Actress citation at the 32nd Grimae Awards for her performance in the first and second seasons of the series, respectively.

In February 2020, the agencies of both Jung Yumi and H.O.T.’s Kangta confirmed that they are in a relationship.