Kim Byung-chul made his acting debut in the movie Once Upon a Time in a Battlefield in 2003. He acted supporting roles in various films such as Hwang Jin Yi in 2007 and Wonderful Nightmare in 2015. In 2016, he became part of the hit television dramas Descended From the Sun and The Lonely Shining Goblin. For his work in the latter, he won the Popular Character Award at the 10th Korea Drama Awards. In 2018, he was cast in the top-rating JTBC series SKY Castle, in which he played the character of the strict and intense law school professor Cha Min-hyuk. His performance in the drama earned him Best Supporting Actor at the 55th Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2019, he picked up the Best Supporting Actor trophy at the KBS Drama Awards for his work in the medical suspense series Doctor Prisoner.

Kim Byung-chul revealed during a guesting on KBS2’s Happy Together that he has had a crush on actress Yoon Se-ah, who played his wife in SKY Castle.