Kim Do-yeon joined Mnet’s reality program Produce 101 in January 2016, where she finished in eight place. This earned her a spot in the show’s derivative girl group I.O.I. They released their debut extended play titled Chrysalis in May 2016. Kim Do-yeon then debuted with the South Korean girl group Weki Meki following I.O.I’s disbandment. Their debut extended play Weme featuring the single I Don’t Like Your Girlfriend hit the market in August 2017. It reached number seven on the Gaon Album Chart.

Kim Do-yeon made her acting debut in the four-episode OCN sports drama Short in 2018. In 2019, she had a brief appearance in JTBC’s Be Melodramatic. In 2021, she played Bae In-hyuk’s younger sister in the tvN fantasy romantic comedy My Roommate Is a Gumiho. That same year, she was cast as the teenage counterparts of Honey Lee and Jeon Ji-hyun’s respective characters in SBS’s One the Woman and tvN’s Jirisan.

Kim Do-yeon attended Sangji Girls’ High School and then transferred to the School of Performing Arts Seoul.