Kim Tae-hoon began acting in theater plays, particularly with the Hanyang Repertory Theater in 1997. He then transitioned to television and movies, playing the lead in short films such as Way to Go, Rose in 2006, The Pit and the Pendulum in 2009, and When the Winter Screams in 2013. In 2010, he portrayed a detective in the mainstream movie The Man from Nowhere, which starred Won Bin and Kim Sae-ron. It recorded 6.2 million theater admissions, making it South Korea’s highest-grossing movie of 2010. In 2012, he landed a supporting role in the KBS2 romantic melodrama Nice Guy. In 2013, he appeared in the crime thriller movie An Ethics Lesson. In 2018, he became part of the main cast of the MBC series Let’s Hold Hands and Watch the Sunset. His work in the drama earned him a Top Excellence Award nomination at the 2018 MBC Drama Awards. In 2021, he was cast in the tvN drama Navillera.

Kim Tae-hoon is the younger brother of actor Kim Tae-woo.