Lee Bong-ryun made her acting debut in 2005 with the musical Five Drawings of Love. She has since appeared in numerous theater productions such as Romeo and Juliet, The House of Bernarda Alba, and Stealing Picasso, among others. In 2014, she landed her first TV acting gig in the hit tvN series Answer Me 1994. In 2017, she acted alongside Shin Mina and Lee Je-hoon in tvN’s Tomorrow With You. In 2018, she became part of the award-winning psychological thriller film Burning by director Lee Chang-dong. In 2020, she joined the cast of the Netflix apocalyptic horror series Sweet Home. In 2021, she reunited with Shin Mina in the top-rating tvN drama Hometown Cha-Cha-Cha. That same year, she was named Best Actress for Theater at the 57th Baeksang Arts Awards for her performance in Hamlet.

Lee Bong-ryun married theater actor Lee Kyu-hee in October 2019.