Moon Jung-hee made her debut as a theater actress in the 1998 musical Blood Brothers. She then played small roles in various films and TV series during the early years of her onscreen career. In 2008, she appeared in the SBS dramas My Sweet Seoul and Daughter-in-Law, which won her the Producer’s Award at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2009, she was named Best Supporting Actress at the KBS Drama Awards for the sageuk Iron Empress. In 2012, she starred in the sci-fi thriller film Deranged, which earned her the Best Supporting Actress trophy at the 33rd Blue Dragon Film Awards. In 2013, she acted alongside Sohn Hyun-joo in the mystery film Hide and Seek, which scored her the Special Jury Prize at the 34th Golden Cinema Festival. In 2015, she was nominated for Best Actress at the 51st Baeksang Arts Awards for her work in MBC’s Mama. That same year, she took home the Best Supporting Actress honors at the 24th Buil Film Awards for Cart. In 2019, she was cast in the SBS series Vagabond, which gave her the Best Supporting Actress trophy at the SBS Drama Awards.

Moon Jung-hee obtained a degree in theater studies from Korea National University of Arts. She is an expert salsa dancer, who was given an achievement award at the 2009 Asia Latin Culture Festival for her commitment to the dance.