Park Sung-woong made his acting debut in the 1997 gangster comedy film No.3. His early notable works include the 2005 crime film Mr. Socrates and the MBC dramas Legend and East of Eden, which aired in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In 2010, he played a supporting role in the hit KBS2 series Baker King Kim Tak-gu. In 2013, he starred as a ruthless gangster in the crime drama film New World, which earned him several Best Supporting Actor nominations including one from the 49th Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2015, he portrayed a cold-blooded serial killer in the crime thriller film The Deal, which scored him another Best Supporting Actor nomination at the 51st Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2016, he received a Special Acting Award at the SBS Drama Awards for the legal thriller Remember—Son’s War. In 2019, he acted alongside B1A4’s Jinyoung and Ra Mi-ran in the fantasy comedy film The Dude in Me, which gave him the Best Actor trophy at the 27th Korea Culture and Entertainment Awards.

Park Sung-woong married actress Shin Eun-jung in 2008. The couple met on the set of Legend, where they played lovers. They have a son together.