Shim Eun-woo debuted as an actress in the 2015 short film Two Sisters. In 2016, she landed her first small screen role in the SBS crime thriller Wanted. In 2017, she had appearances in the SBS series Suspicious Partner and the MBC sageuk Rebel: Thief Who Stole the People. In 2019, she played a supporting character in the tvN historical fantasy drama Arthdal Chronicles. Her career breakthrough came in 2020 when she became part of the top-rating JTBC series A Couple’s World, where she portrayed a bartender struggling with an abusive boyfriend.

In 2021, Shim Eun-woo was accused of bullying a schoolmate in middle school. She later admitted to the accusations and issued a public apology. She also said that she personally met with the victim to apologize.