Han Go-eun began her entertainment career after winning the Super Elite Model Contest in 1995. In 1998, she made her acting debut in the film City of the Rising Sun. In 2001, she starred in the KBS2 drama Like Father, Unlike Son, which won her the Popularity Award at the KBS Drama Awards. In 2002 and 2003, she won two more popularity trophies at the SBS and KBS Drama Awards for her work in That Woman Catches People and Bodyguard, respectively. In 2007, she portrayed a gisaeng in the KBS2 series Capital Scandal, in which she was named Best Supporting Actress at the KBS Drama Awards. In 2010, she acted alongside Cha In-pyo in the KBS1 sageuk The Reputable Family. In 2021, she joined the cast of JTBC’s Undercover, which was adapted from the BBC series of the same name.

Han Go-eun dated g.o.d’s Park Joon-hyung from 2001 to 2003. In August 2015, she married her non-showbiz boyfriend after 100 days of dating.