Kim Joo-hyun debuted in the 2007 movie Epitaph. In 2014, she was cast in the SBS family romantic comedy Modern Farmer. In 2016, she became part of the disaster movie Pandora, where she played the fiancée of Kim Nam-gil’s character. In 2017, she landed a main role in the SBS drama Band of Sisters. Her performance in the series earned her a Best New Actress nomination at the 2017 SBS Drama Awards. In 2018, she scored a Top Excellence Award nomination at the MBC Drama Awards for her work in the weekend family series Wealthy Son. In 2020, she starred in the SBS legal comedy Fly Dragon as a passionate newbie reporter.

Kim Joo-hyun is known for resembling fellow actress Han Ga-in. She previously used the stage names Yeoji and Han Joo-hyun.