Park Joo-hyun made her acting debut with a minor role in the 2019 fantasy comedy film The Dude in Me. In 2020, she joined the main cast of the Netflix teen crime drama Extracurricular, which won her Best New Actress at the 57th Baeksang Arts Awards. That same year, she took on the female leading role in the KBS2 supernatural-comedy drama Zombie Detective, opposite Choi Jin-hyuk. Her work in the series scored her Best New Actress nominations at the 2020 KBS Drama Awards and the 2021 APAN Star Awards. In 2021, she played a problematic high school student in the tvN crime thriller Mouse.

Park Joo-hyun majored in acting at Korea National University of Arts.