Pyo Ye-jin made her acting debut in the 2012 MBC daily series Oh Ja-ryong Is Coming. In 2016, she appeared in the KBS2 weekend drama Laurel Tree Tailors, which won her Best New Actress at the 24th Korea Culture and Entertainment Awards. In 2017, she played a supporting character in the KBS2 series Fight My Way. She then bagged her first leading role in the 2017 KBS1 daily drama Love Returns. Her performance in both series earned her a Best New Actress nomination at the KBS Drama Awards. In 2018, she took home the Popular Female Character Award at the 11th Korea Drama Awards for her role in the hit tvN romantic comedy What’s Wrong With Secretary Kim. In 2019, she acted alongside Jang Nara and Lee Sang-yoon in the SBS mystery melodrama VIP, which gave her the Best Character Award at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2021, she joined the main cast of the SBS crime thriller Taxi Driver, which scored her an Excellence Award nomination at the SBS Drama Awards.

Prior to her acting debut, Pyo Ye-jin worked as a flight attendant at Korean Air for almost two years. She previously dated her Laurel Tree Tailors co-star Hyun-woo.