Park Hee-soon started his career as a theater actor before becoming active in films in 2002. In 2007, he starred in the crime thriller film Seven Days along with Kim Yun-jin. His portrayal of a tough cop in the movie earned him numerous Best Supporting Actor citations, including one from the 29th Blue Dragon Film Awards. In 2009, he became part of the movie The Scam, which scored him a Best Supporting Actor trophy at the 17th Chunsa Film Art Awards. In 2010, he led the drama film A Barefoot Dream, which was a co-production between South Korea and Japan. He was nominated for several Best Actor awards for his performance in the movie. In 2018, he took home the Best Supporting Actor honors at the 54th Baeksang Arts Awards for the political thriller film 1987: When the Day Comes, which was also awarded the Daesang at the ceremony.

In 2015, Park Hee-soon and actress Park Ye-jin registered their marriage after dating for five years.