Seo Hyo-rim made her acting debut in the 2007 KBS2 series When Spring Comes. In 2008, she became part of the KBS2 drama The World They Live In, which earned her a Best New Actress nomination at the KBS Drama Awards. In 2009, she landed her first big screen role as a nurse in the psychological thriller Desire to Kill. In 2011, she joined the main cast of the SBS drama Scent of a Woman, which won her the New Star Award at the SBS Drama Awards. In 2014, she was nominated for an Excellence Award at the SBS Drama Awards for her performance in the weekend drama Endless Love. In 2016, she played one of the main roles in the SBS romantic comedy Beautiful Gong Shim. This was followed by another major role in MBC’s Man Who Sets the Table in 2017. The following year, she starred in the KBS1 daily drama It’s My Life, which gave her an Excellence Award nomination at the KBS Drama Awards. In 2021, she appeared in the hit MBC sageuk The Red Sleeve Cuff.

Seo Hyo-rim married Jung Myung-ho, who is the son of veteran actress Kim Su-mi, in December 2019. She gave birth to a daughter in June 2020.