Kim Yoo-jung began her entertainment career as a model for a confectionery brand in 2003. The following year, she made her acting debut by appearing in the film DMZ and in the MBC series Freezing Point. As a child star, she won numerous Best Young Actress trophies for her work in many television dramas, such as Iljimae, The Painter of Wind, Grudge: Tale of the Fox’s Child, and Dong Yi, among others. In 2012, she was cast as the young counterpart of Han Ga-in’s character in the top-rating MBC sageuk The Moon That Embraces the Sun, which won her several acting awards. In 2014, she appeared in the film Thread of Lies, in which she received a Best New Actress nomination at the 35th Blue Dragon Film Awards. In 2016, she starred in the hit KBS2 sageuk Moonlight Drawn by Clouds, opposite Park Bo-gum. She collected numerous recognitions for her work in the series, including an Excellence Award at the KBS Drama Awards and the Most Popular Actress for TV at the 53rd Baeksang Arts Awards. In 2020, she bagged another Excellence Award at the SBS Drama Awards for her performance in the romantic comedy Backstreet Rookie.

Kim Yoo-jung is known for actively participating in and donating to different charitable causes. In 2017, the actress put off taking the national College Scholastic Ability Test to give more focus on her acting career. In 2018, she was diagnosed with dysfunctions of the thyroid gland.