Uhm Tae-woong began acting in 1998, playing small roles in TV series and films. His career breakthrough came in 2005 with his appearances in the KBS2 dramas Delightful Girl Chun-hyang and Resurrection, which both won him an Excellence Award at the KBS Drama Awards. He was also nominated for Best Actor at the 42nd Baeksang Arts Awards for his performance in the latter. In 2006, he was named Best New Actor at the 14th Chunsa Film Art Awards for director Kim Tae-yong’s Family Ties. In 2008, he acted alongside Moon So-ri and Kim Jung-eun in the drama film Forever the Moment, which earned him a Best Supporting Actor nomination at the 29th Blue Dragon Film Awards. In 2010, he joined the main cast of MBC’s mega hit sageuk Queen Seon-deok, which gave him a Top Excellence Award at the MBC Drama Awards. In 2013, he was once again nominated for Baeksang Best Actor for the KBS2 drama Equator Man. In 2016, he starred in the SBS thriller Wanted.

Uhm Tae-woong is the younger brother of singer and actress Uhm Jung-hwa. In January 2013, he married ballerina Yoon Hye-jin. The couple welcomed their first child in June of the same year. In 2016, Uhm Tae-woong was accused of sexually assaulting a massage therapist at an illegal massage parlor. He was cleared of the charges, but was found guilty of solicitation of a prostitute and received a ₩1 million fine.